Ethiopia is a landlocked country in Eastern Africa with a population of approximately 102.4 million people. The agricultural sector represents 41% of GDP and employs 85% of the workforce. Soil and climate conditions favor the cultivation of diverse farm products. Nevertheless, food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition are still prevalent in parts of Ethiopia. Triggering factors include droughts and floods, while systemic factors, such as environmental degradation, a low degree of mechanization and low use of technology in the agricultural sector, a lack of employment opportunities and high population pressure also significantly contribute to this problem. The national diet is heavily starch-based, and starchy staples provide more than three quarters of dietary energy supply. This is reflected on Ethiopia’s reliance on wheat imports which constitute 36% of the total import value, despite high wheat production levels. In terms of exports, Ethiopia is Africa’s largest coffee producer; coffee production represents the greatest source of export revenue for the country. Legumes, notably fava beans, are the third most important export crop. They are also important for food security, due to their low price and high protein content.

Read the full country dossier here, see the Ethiopia farmer innovation contest page here, and read the country innovation study on the status of agricultural innovations, innovation platforms and innovation investments in Ethiopia here.

Agricultural Typology of Ethiopia:

Source: Maruyama et al. (2018)


Ethiopia on


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