The objective of this study was to analyse the economic and environmental impacts of the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies on farm management in Benin. The data were collected from 371 producers. Descriptive statistics, pie charts and histograms were used to represent and characterise the different adaptation strategies depending on the climatic risks experienced on the farms surveyed. The flora analysis tool EX-ACT developed by FAO allowed us to evaluate greenhouse gas at farm level depending on the adaptation strategies used. The econometric approach based on the calculation of the Marginal Treatment Effect (MTE) and the Ricardian approach were used to quantify the impact of using adaptation strategies on the revenues and the yields of the farms.
The study revealed that the endogenous strategies used relied on rain makers and sacrifices. The main exogenous strategies used were short-cycle varieties of rice and maize, and mulching using plant residues. Estimation of the MTE indicated that the utilisation of short-cycle maize varieties increased yield by 490.43 kg/ha. Mulching using plant residues increased maize yield by 404.29 kg/ha in the sub-population of potential users. Regarding utilisation of short-cycle rice varieties for adaptation to climate change, the impact was 1432.22 kg/ha in the sub-population of the potential users.
The results also revealed that utilisation of short-cycle maize varieties increased the maize net revenue by FCFA 138,480 per hectare. In the sub-population of the real users of short-cycle maize varieties, the impact was FCFA 153,930 per hectare and significant at the threshold of 5 percent. The impact of using short-cycle rice varieties on the net revenue was FCFA 351,940 per hectare in the sub-population of the potential users. Elsewhere, the results of the Ricardian model showed that an increase of 1°C in the average temperature during the rainy season decreases the maize revenues by FCFA 4,760.29 per hectare on average for all the farmers in the sample. Likewise, a decrease of 1 mm of water in the average yearly rainfall of the dry season generates an increase in the revenue of the farm holding for the farmers of the sample by FCFA 500.17 per ha for those who already practise climate change adaptation.
The results of the elasticities showed that during the rainy season, an increase of 1 percent in the temperature leads to a decrease of 2.67 percent in the maize revenue. During the dry season, an increase of 1 percent in rainfall leads to a decrease of 4.26 percent in the revenues of the farm holdings of the sample. Although the adaptation strategies disseminated allowed producers to adapt to climate change and to improve their yield and revenue, they did not help them to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases at farm level. In fact, the study observed that the use of mineral fertiliser contributed to emission of greenhouse gases, especially in rice plots. In view of this observation, we recommend that the use of chemical fertilisers be regulated. Producers must be followed up and supervised rigorously or encouraged to use minimal qualities of mineral fertilisers. The study suggests that in the frame of other projects on the adaptation to climatic risks, measures to reduce greenhouse gases be considered and disseminated.
Published as FARA Research Results Vol 1(7)