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Investments in roads, irrigation and electrification are often favoured by governments and donors as promising means for accelerating economic growth and poverty reduction in rural areas. In this study, we develop a spatial and economic tool for strategic analysis and visioning to help identify the best opportunities for rural infrastructure investments in Senegal. The methodology relies on the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to (i) identify areas of high agricultural potential with low accessibility to prioritize investments in road infrastructure according to a spatial model that estimates the minimum time taken to travel from any point in a country to the nearest market, and (ii) estimate average household gains in agricultural efficiency by comparing smallholders’ performance under current conditions and under a scenario of improved access to small-scale irrigation and rural electrification. Our results show that the largest concentration of high agricultural potential areas for cereals is located in the region of Saint-Louis in the north, specifically in the departments of Dagana and Podor. In the case of horticulture, the areas with higher potential are in Rufisque, Thies and Tivaouane, and to a lesser extent Dagana. For the rice producers’ sample, the divide in the distribution of potential is very clear with medium to high potential in the Senegal River Valley (north) and medium to low potential in the Anambe Basin (south). In addition, results show that farms in Podor (Saint-Louis) are among the best targets for investments in small-scale irrigation given their high potential and low efficiency levels. In the case of profit gains from investments in rural electrification, it is observed that while the entire area covered by rice would benefit from electrification, higher profits are expected in the departments of Saint-Louis and Dagana, Bakel and across the Anambe Basin.