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Magoes are the most popular fruit produced in Mali with more than 20 varieties. Despite the quality preference for mangos for Mali, achieving major gains in returns has posed challenges to different actors. This paper assessed the potential economic benefits of the different actors in the mango value chain using participatory appraisal techniques in two regions (Sikasso and Koulikoro). We used the “structure, conduct and performance” approach to assess the whole value chain of the fruit. Farmers and the organizations, state and para-state institutions were surveyed to capture the constraints and opportunities along the value chain. Our findings indicated that there is high potential for mango production in the country, but producers face storage and conservation constraints. However, mangoes are exported to Europe by sea and air to supply big distribution chains. Processing the mango in the country is a key challenge to the development of the value chain.