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This study examines the impact of agricultural mechanisation on total factor productivity and cereal yields in African countries. The authors used both contemporaneous and sequential Malmquist index approaches to compare agricultural productivity growth across the continent. The contemporaneous approach suggests that agricultural productivity increased by 1% annually between 1961 and 2014, while the sequential technology measures show a higher growth rate of 1.7%. The most significant growth rates were observed in the 2000s due to technical advancements. The study found that mechanisation, research and development, weather conditions, and population pressure influence agricultural productivity in Africa. It is crucial to implement climate-smart strategies to sustain crop yields in rain-fed agricultural countries. Sharing knowledge and best practices from high-productivity countries could help increase productivity in low-performing countries.